ERROR 45940 – No qualifying bean of type org.springframework.test.web.servlet.MockMvc available

In spring boot integration test, MockMvc throws NoSuchBeanDefinitionException on auto wire. MockMvc failed with an @autowired annotation in the spring boot test environment. In this article, we discuss the explanation for NoSuchBeanDefinitionExceptio: org.springframework.test.web.servlet.MockMvc, and the solution to fix this exception.

2019-12-21 12:48:38.819 ERROR 45940 --- [           main] o.s.test.context.TestContextManager      : Caught exception while allowing TestExecutionListener [org.springframework.boot.test.autoconfigure.SpringBootDependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener@13b6aecc] to prepare test instance [com.test.StudentTestController@f2e4acf]

org.springframework.beans.factory.UnsatisfiedDependencyException: Error creating bean with name 'com.test.StudentTestController': Unsatisfied dependency expressed through field 'mockMvc'; nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No qualifying bean of type 'org.springframework.test.web.servlet.MockMvc' available: expected at least 1 bean which qualifies as autowire candidate. Dependency annotations: {@org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired(required=true)}
	at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredFieldElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:639) ~[spring-beans-5.2.0.RELEASE.jar:5.2.0.RELEASE]
	at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.InjectionMetadata.inject(InjectionMetadata.java:116) ~[spring-beans-5.2.0.RELEASE.jar:5.2.0.RELEASE]
	at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.postProcessProperties(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:397) ~[spring-beans-5.2.0.RELEASE.jar:5.2.0.RELEASE]
	at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.populateBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:1429) ~[spring-beans-5.2.0.RELEASE.jar:5.2.0.RELEASE]
	at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.autowireBeanProperties(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:393) ~[spring-beans-5.2.0.RELEASE.jar:5.2.0.RELEASE]
	at org.springframework.test.context.support.DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.injectDependencies(DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.java:119) ~[spring-test-5.2.0.RELEASE.jar:5.2.0.RELEASE]
	at org.springframework.test.context.support.DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.prepareTestInstance(DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.java:83) ~[spring-test-5.2.0.RELEASE.jar:5.2.0.RELEASE]
	at org.springframework.boot.test.autoconfigure.SpringBootDependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.prepareTestInstance(SpringBootDependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.java:43) ~[spring-boot-test-autoconfigure-2.2.0.RELEASE.jar:2.2.0.RELEASE]
	at org.springframework.test.context.TestContextManager.prepareTestInstance(TestContextManager.java:244) ~[spring-test-5.2.0.RELEASE.jar:5.2.0.RELEASE]
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.createTest(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:227) [spring-test-5.2.0.RELEASE.jar:5.2.0.RELEASE]
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner$1.runReflectiveCall(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:289) [spring-test-5.2.0.RELEASE.jar:5.2.0.RELEASE]
	at org.junit.internal.runners.model.ReflectiveCallable.run(ReflectiveCallable.java:12) [junit-4.12.jar:4.12]
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.methodBlock(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:291) [spring-test-5.2.0.RELEASE.jar:5.2.0.RELEASE]
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.runChild(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:246) [spring-test-5.2.0.RELEASE.jar:5.2.0.RELEASE]
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.runChild(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:97) [spring-test-5.2.0.RELEASE.jar:5.2.0.RELEASE]
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$3.run(ParentRunner.java:290) [junit-4.12.jar:4.12]
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$1.schedule(ParentRunner.java:71) [junit-4.12.jar:4.12]
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.runChildren(ParentRunner.java:288) [junit-4.12.jar:4.12]
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.access$000(ParentRunner.java:58) [junit-4.12.jar:4.12]
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$2.evaluate(ParentRunner.java:268) [junit-4.12.jar:4.12]
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.statements.RunBeforeTestClassCallbacks.evaluate(RunBeforeTestClassCallbacks.java:61) [spring-test-5.2.0.RELEASE.jar:5.2.0.RELEASE]
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.statements.RunAfterTestClassCallbacks.evaluate(RunAfterTestClassCallbacks.java:70) [spring-test-5.2.0.RELEASE.jar:5.2.0.RELEASE]
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.run(ParentRunner.java:363) [junit-4.12.jar:4.12]
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.run(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:190) [spring-test-5.2.0.RELEASE.jar:5.2.0.RELEASE]
	at org.junit.runner.JUnitCore.run(JUnitCore.java:137) [junit-4.12.jar:4.12]
	at org.junit.runner.JUnitCore.run(JUnitCore.java:115) [junit-4.12.jar:4.12]
	at org.junit.vintage.engine.execution.RunnerExecutor.execute(RunnerExecutor.java:40) [junit-vintage-engine-5.5.2.jar:5.5.2]
	at java.util.stream.ForEachOps$ForEachOp$OfRef.accept(ForEachOps.java:184) ~[na:1.8.0_101]
	at java.util.stream.ReferencePipeline$3$1.accept(ReferencePipeline.java:193) ~[na:1.8.0_101]
	at java.util.Iterator.forEachRemaining(Iterator.java:116) ~[na:1.8.0_101]
	at java.util.Spliterators$IteratorSpliterator.forEachRemaining(Spliterators.java:1801) ~[na:1.8.0_101]
	at java.util.stream.AbstractPipeline.copyInto(AbstractPipeline.java:481) ~[na:1.8.0_101]
	at java.util.stream.AbstractPipeline.wrapAndCopyInto(AbstractPipeline.java:471) ~[na:1.8.0_101]
	at java.util.stream.ForEachOps$ForEachOp.evaluateSequential(ForEachOps.java:151) ~[na:1.8.0_101]
	at java.util.stream.ForEachOps$ForEachOp$OfRef.evaluateSequential(ForEachOps.java:174) ~[na:1.8.0_101]
	at java.util.stream.AbstractPipeline.evaluate(AbstractPipeline.java:234) ~[na:1.8.0_101]
	at java.util.stream.ReferencePipeline.forEach(ReferencePipeline.java:418) ~[na:1.8.0_101]
	at org.junit.vintage.engine.VintageTestEngine.executeAllChildren(VintageTestEngine.java:80) ~[junit-vintage-engine-5.5.2.jar:5.5.2]
	at org.junit.vintage.engine.VintageTestEngine.execute(VintageTestEngine.java:71) ~[junit-vintage-engine-5.5.2.jar:5.5.2]
	at org.junit.platform.launcher.core.DefaultLauncher.execute(DefaultLauncher.java:229) ~[.cp/:na]
	at org.junit.platform.launcher.core.DefaultLauncher.lambda$execute$6(DefaultLauncher.java:197) ~[.cp/:na]
	at org.junit.platform.launcher.core.DefaultLauncher.withInterceptedStreams(DefaultLauncher.java:211) ~[.cp/:na]
	at org.junit.platform.launcher.core.DefaultLauncher.execute(DefaultLauncher.java:191) ~[.cp/:na]
	at org.junit.platform.launcher.core.DefaultLauncher.execute(DefaultLauncher.java:137) ~[.cp/:na]
	at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit5.runner.JUnit5TestReference.run(JUnit5TestReference.java:89) ~[.cp/:na]
	at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.TestExecution.run(TestExecution.java:41) ~[.cp/:na]
	at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.runTests(RemoteTestRunner.java:541) ~[.cp/:na]
	at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.runTests(RemoteTestRunner.java:763) ~[.cp/:na]
	at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.run(RemoteTestRunner.java:463) ~[.cp/:na]
	at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.main(RemoteTestRunner.java:209) ~[.cp/:na]
Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No qualifying bean of type 'org.springframework.test.web.servlet.MockMvc' available: expected at least 1 bean which qualifies as autowire candidate. Dependency annotations: {@org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired(required=true)}
	at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.raiseNoMatchingBeanFound(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:1695) ~[spring-beans-5.2.0.RELEASE.jar:5.2.0.RELEASE]
	at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.doResolveDependency(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:1253) ~[spring-beans-5.2.0.RELEASE.jar:5.2.0.RELEASE]
	at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.resolveDependency(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:1207) ~[spring-beans-5.2.0.RELEASE.jar:5.2.0.RELEASE]
	at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredFieldElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:636) ~[spring-beans-5.2.0.RELEASE.jar:5.2.0.RELEASE]
	... 49 common frames omitted


Root Cause

MockMvc is used to mock the mvc request in the rest controller. MockMvc simulates the rest calls in the spring boot test environment. When MockMvc bean is created using @autowired annotation in a spring boot test class, this UnsatisfiedDependencyException will be thrown



How to reproduce this issue

This issue can be reproduced if you add a @autowired annotation to the MockMvc object. This exception is replicated by the following code

package com.yawintutor;

import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.request.MockMvcRequestBuilders.get;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.content;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.jsonPath;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.status;

import org.junit.Test;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest;
import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringRunner;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.MockMvc;

@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@SpringBootTest
public class StudentTestController{
	@Autowired
	private MockMvc mockMvc;

	@Test
	public void testStudent() throws Exception {
		mockMvc.perform(get("/student")).andExpect(status().isOk())
				.andExpect(content().contentType("application/json"))
				.andExpect(jsonPath("$.studentId").value("1"))
				.andExpect(jsonPath("$.name").value("student1"))
				.andExpect(jsonPath("$.age").value(30));
	}
}


Solution 1

There are two ways to crate a MockMvc Object. The MockMvc object is created using WebApplicationContext. The code below demonstrates how to create MockMvc with WebApplicationContext

package com.yawintutor;

import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.request.MockMvcRequestBuilders.get;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.content;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.jsonPath;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.status;

import org.junit.Before;
import org.junit.Test;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest;
import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringRunner;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.MockMvc;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.setup.MockMvcBuilders;
import org.springframework.web.context.WebApplicationContext;

@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@SpringBootTest
public class StudentTestController{
	@Autowired
	private WebApplicationContext webApplicationContext;
	
	private MockMvc mockMvc;
	
	@Before
	public void setup() {
		mockMvc = MockMvcBuilders.webAppContextSetup(webApplicationContext).build();
	}
	
	@Test
	public void testStudent() throws Exception {
		mockMvc.perform(get("/student")).andExpect(status().isOk())
				.andExpect(content().contentType("application/json"))
				.andExpect(jsonPath("$.studentId").value("1"))
				.andExpect(jsonPath("$.name").value("student1"))
				.andExpect(jsonPath("$.age").value(30));

	}

}


Solution 2

The second option to create MockMvc object is using @AutoConfigureMockMvc annotation. The code below demonstrates how to create MockMvc with @AutoConfigureMockMvc

package com.yawintutor;

import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.request.MockMvcRequestBuilders.get;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.content;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.jsonPath;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.status;

import org.junit.Test;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.autoconfigure.web.servlet.AutoConfigureMockMvc;
import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest;
import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringRunner;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.MockMvc;

@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@SpringBootTest
@AutoConfigureMockMvc
public class StudentTestController{
	@Autowired
	private MockMvc mockMvc;

	@Test
	public void testStudent() throws Exception {
		mockMvc.perform(get("/student")).andExpect(status().isOk())
				.andExpect(content().contentType("application/json"))
				.andExpect(jsonPath("$.studentId").value("1"))
				.andExpect(jsonPath("$.name").value("student1"))
				.andExpect(jsonPath("$.age").value(30));

	}

}



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