No qualifying bean of type org.springframework.web.context.WebApplicationContext available

WebApplicationContext creates a web environment to run a spring boot test class. If the WebApplicationContext bean is not available or is not created within the spring boot framework and the spring boot bean attempts to auto-wire this WebApplicationContext bean, this exception will be thrown by spring boot.

11:23:36.575 [main] ERROR org.springframework.test.context.TestContextManager - Caught exception while allowing TestExecutionListener [org.springframework.test.context.support.DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener@1b68b9a4] to prepare test instance [com.yawintutor.StudentTestController@7193666c]
org.springframework.beans.factory.UnsatisfiedDependencyException: Error creating bean with name 'com.yawintutor.StudentTestController': Unsatisfied dependency expressed through field 'webApplicationContext'; nested exception is org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No qualifying bean of type 'org.springframework.web.context.WebApplicationContext' available: expected at least 1 bean which qualifies as autowire candidate. Dependency annotations: {@org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired(required=true)}
	at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredFieldElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:639)
	at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.InjectionMetadata.inject(InjectionMetadata.java:116)
	at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.postProcessProperties(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:397)
	at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.populateBean(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:1429)
	at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.autowireBeanProperties(AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory.java:393)
	at org.springframework.test.context.support.DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.injectDependencies(DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.java:119)
	at org.springframework.test.context.support.DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.prepareTestInstance(DependencyInjectionTestExecutionListener.java:83)
	at org.springframework.test.context.TestContextManager.prepareTestInstance(TestContextManager.java:244)
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.createTest(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:227)
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner$1.runReflectiveCall(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:289)
	at org.junit.internal.runners.model.ReflectiveCallable.run(ReflectiveCallable.java:12)
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.methodBlock(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:291)
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.runChild(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:246)
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.runChild(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:97)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$3.run(ParentRunner.java:290)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$1.schedule(ParentRunner.java:71)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.runChildren(ParentRunner.java:288)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.access$000(ParentRunner.java:58)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner$2.evaluate(ParentRunner.java:268)
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.statements.RunBeforeTestClassCallbacks.evaluate(RunBeforeTestClassCallbacks.java:61)
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.statements.RunAfterTestClassCallbacks.evaluate(RunAfterTestClassCallbacks.java:70)
	at org.junit.runners.ParentRunner.run(ParentRunner.java:363)
	at org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.run(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.java:190)
	at org.junit.runner.JUnitCore.run(JUnitCore.java:137)
	at org.junit.runner.JUnitCore.run(JUnitCore.java:115)
	at org.junit.vintage.engine.execution.RunnerExecutor.execute(RunnerExecutor.java:40)
	at java.util.stream.ForEachOps$ForEachOp$OfRef.accept(ForEachOps.java:184)
	at java.util.stream.ReferencePipeline$3$1.accept(ReferencePipeline.java:193)
	at java.util.Iterator.forEachRemaining(Iterator.java:116)
	at java.util.Spliterators$IteratorSpliterator.forEachRemaining(Spliterators.java:1801)
	at java.util.stream.AbstractPipeline.copyInto(AbstractPipeline.java:481)
	at java.util.stream.AbstractPipeline.wrapAndCopyInto(AbstractPipeline.java:471)
	at java.util.stream.ForEachOps$ForEachOp.evaluateSequential(ForEachOps.java:151)
	at java.util.stream.ForEachOps$ForEachOp$OfRef.evaluateSequential(ForEachOps.java:174)
	at java.util.stream.AbstractPipeline.evaluate(AbstractPipeline.java:234)
	at java.util.stream.ReferencePipeline.forEach(ReferencePipeline.java:418)
	at org.junit.vintage.engine.VintageTestEngine.executeAllChildren(VintageTestEngine.java:80)
	at org.junit.vintage.engine.VintageTestEngine.execute(VintageTestEngine.java:71)
	at org.junit.platform.launcher.core.DefaultLauncher.execute(DefaultLauncher.java:229)
	at org.junit.platform.launcher.core.DefaultLauncher.lambda$execute$6(DefaultLauncher.java:197)
	at org.junit.platform.launcher.core.DefaultLauncher.withInterceptedStreams(DefaultLauncher.java:211)
	at org.junit.platform.launcher.core.DefaultLauncher.execute(DefaultLauncher.java:191)
	at org.junit.platform.launcher.core.DefaultLauncher.execute(DefaultLauncher.java:137)
	at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit5.runner.JUnit5TestReference.run(JUnit5TestReference.java:89)
	at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.TestExecution.run(TestExecution.java:41)
	at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.runTests(RemoteTestRunner.java:541)
	at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.runTests(RemoteTestRunner.java:763)
	at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.run(RemoteTestRunner.java:463)
	at org.eclipse.jdt.internal.junit.runner.RemoteTestRunner.main(RemoteTestRunner.java:209)
Caused by: org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException: No qualifying bean of type 'org.springframework.web.context.WebApplicationContext' available: expected at least 1 bean which qualifies as autowire candidate. Dependency annotations: {@org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired(required=true)}
	at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.raiseNoMatchingBeanFound(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:1695)
	at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.doResolveDependency(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:1253)
	at org.springframework.beans.factory.support.DefaultListableBeanFactory.resolveDependency(DefaultListableBeanFactory.java:1207)
	at org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor$AutowiredFieldElement.inject(AutowiredAnnotationBeanPostProcessor.java:636)
	... 48 common frames omitted


Root Cause

The WebApplicationContext bean is unable to create or not available within the spring boot framework. A problem occurred when creating a WebApplicationContext bean or it is not possible to create a WebApplicationContext bean. This issue is resolved if the WebApplicationContext bean is successfully created.



How to Reproduce this issue

This issue can be replicated if the spring boot test environment is not available when running the JUnit test case. This problem will be replicated by the following code

package com.test;

import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.request.MockMvcRequestBuilders.get;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.content;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.jsonPath;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.status;

import org.junit.Before;
import org.junit.Test;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringRunner;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.MockMvc;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.setup.MockMvcBuilders;
import org.springframework.web.context.WebApplicationContext;

@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
public class StudentTestController{
	@Autowired
	private WebApplicationContext webApplicationContext;
	
	private MockMvc mockMvc;

	@Before
	public void setup() {
		mockMvc = MockMvcBuilders.webAppContextSetup(webApplicationContext).build();
	}

	@Test
	public void testStudent() throws Exception {
		mockMvc.perform(get("/student")).andExpect(status().isOk())
				.andExpect(content().contentType("application/json"))
				.andExpect(jsonPath("$.studentId").value("1"))
				.andExpect(jsonPath("$.name").value("student1"))
				.andExpect(jsonPath("$.age").value(30));
	}
}


Solution

The spring boot test environment is not available in the example above. When you create a spring boot test using the @SpringBootTest annotation, the WebApplicationContext bean will be created in the test environment. This is going to solve the problem.

package com.test;

import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.request.MockMvcRequestBuilders.get;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.content;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.jsonPath;
import static org.springframework.test.web.servlet.result.MockMvcResultMatchers.status;

import org.junit.Before;
import org.junit.Test;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest;
import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringRunner;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.MockMvc;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.setup.MockMvcBuilders;
import org.springframework.web.context.WebApplicationContext;

@RunWith(SpringRunner.class)
@SpringBootTest
public class StudentTestController{
	@Autowired
	private WebApplicationContext webApplicationContext;
	
	private MockMvc mockMvc;

	@Before
	public void setup() {
		mockMvc = MockMvcBuilders.webAppContextSetup(webApplicationContext).build();
	}

	@Test
	public void testStudent() throws Exception {
		mockMvc.perform(get("/student")).andExpect(status().isOk())
				.andExpect(content().contentType("application/json"))
				.andExpect(jsonPath("$.studentId").value("1"))
				.andExpect(jsonPath("$.name").value("student1"))
				.andExpect(jsonPath("$.age").value(30));
	}
}



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